An accessible, standards driven mobile web site for DIAL House Chester.

E15003

0817804 Andrew Jones – 2011

Department of Computer Science and Information Systems

CO6009: An implementation Dissertation


 

Disclaimer

This work is original and has not been previously submitted in support of any other course or qualification.

 

 

Andrew Jones

30/06/2016


 

Abstract

The dissertations aim was to design, develop and deploy a mobile web site for DIAL House Chester. It aims to produce a highly accessible standards driven product that DIAL House Chester can implement and upgrade easily.


 

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Mohammed Saeed, for his continued guidance and support throughout the writing of this dissertation and the development process.

I would like to thank my friends within the Computer Science course, for their help, support and frequent reminders about deadlines. In particular Robert Tonnessen for all the technical support and motivational input and tremendous sense of humour.

For all of the above, I extend my gratitude.


 

Table of Contents

Disclaimer. 2

Abstract. 3

Acknowledgements. 4

Table of Contents. 5

Table of figures. 8

Table of tables. 9

Hypotheses. 10

The problem.. 11

Research goals. 12

Research Objectives. 12

Stages of Work and Structure. 12

To research: 13

Introduction. 14

Personal Involvement. 15

Introduction. 15

Methodology Selection. 16

Planning. 16

Strategic brief. 17

Mission statement. 17

Marketing goals. 17

Competitive analysis. 17

User requirements. 18

Branding strategy. 18

Metrics for your success. 18

Technical brief. 18

Visitors' equipment. 18

Monitor size. 18

Connection speed. 20

Mobile phone processor speed. 20

Amount of RAM... 20

Colour depth. 20

Installed plug-ins. 20

Functional brief. 20

What the site should do for visitors. 20

List of features. 21

Now.. 21

Future. 21

Creative brief. 21

Proposed visual design directions to explore. 21

Objectives of the upcoming creative exploration. 21

Audience. 21

The "story" the site should tell 21

Links: 22

Tone and imagery that the site should take on. 22

Content plan. 22

Who is responsible for what content and when. 22

Description of the deliverable. 22

Content provider. 22

Writer/editor. 22

Due date. 23

Date submitted. 23

Priority. 23

Analysis. 23

Design. 23

Development. 24

Implementation. 25

Aims. 26

Objectives. 26

Background. 27

DIAL House Chester. 27

Hardware and software requirements. 27

Mobile Web Sites. 29

Communications planning. 29

Standards. 29

Accessibility. 30

Literature Review.. 32

Introduction. 32

Conclusion. 32

Keywords, major issues and categories. 32

Keywords. 33

Major issues. 33

Categories. 36

A discussion of technological convergence. 37

Towards Convergence of WML, XHTML, and other W3C Technologies. 37

A practical evaluation of programming languages. 37

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. 38

Perceivable. 38

Operable. 38

Understandable. 38

Robust. 38

W3C standards. 38

Accessibility. 39

Some sites that are considered good design. 39

Media file standards and the tools for encoding. 40

Hosting requirements for m. or mobile domain. 40

Communications infrastructure for mobile web sites. 40

An evaluation of project management. 41

A discussion about systems analysis and design. 43

Planning. 43

Analysis. 46

Design. 48

Implementation. Error! Bookmark not defined.

Learning WML & WML Script, XML and XHTML. 48

Feedback and user survey results. 50

Test Plan. 59

Evidence. 60

Hand over. 61

Future Work. 62

Conclusion. 63

Bibliography. 64

Works Cited. 65

Appendix 1. 67

Example of XHTML Mobile Profile. 67

Example of XML. 67

Example of WML. 67

 

Table of figures

Figure 1 Mobile website lifecycle_ 12

Figure 2 Systems analysis methodology framework_ 13

Figure 3 176 x 220 pixels screen size_ 17

Figure 4 Screen resolutions 19

Figure 5 Nokia N70 displaying the DIAL House Chester mobile web site home page_ 20

Figure 6 Early home page iteration_ 23

Figure 7 DIAL House web site map_ 24

Figure 8 A new design direction_ 25

Figure 9 Filezilla client connected to the testing server 25

Figure 10 128 x 128 pixels optimised image size_ 30

Figure 11 176 x 220 pixels Main Graphic Size_ 30

Figure 12 288 x 322 pixels Smart Phones 31

Figure 13 State of Knowledge and Major Questions 32

Figure 14 Major issues 33

Figure 15 Windows Phone 7_ 33

Figure 16 Chart 1 Sales of mobile phones 2009 - 2010_ 34

Figure 17 Chart 2 Market share analysis 35

Figure 18 Mark-up language direction of evolution_ 36

Figure 19 Understanding the four principles of accessibility_ 39

Figure 20 WAP browser communications map_ 40

Figure 21 Part 1 of the project plan_ 41

Figure 22 Part 2 of the project plan_ 42

Figure 23 Outline HTML structure for the Mobile phone web site_ 43

Figure 24 Use case for the DIAL House Chester web site_ 44

Figure 25 More modelling of the index.html interaction_ 44

Figure 26 DIAL House Chester IT and IS Support team_ 45

Figure 27 Nokia N70 showing DIAL House Chester index.html 48

Figure 28 the Internet revolution_ 48

Figure 29 Questionnaire decision tree_ 50

Figure 30 Chart 3 How long have you had your internet capable phone?_ 52

Figure 31 Chart 4 What do you think of the design of the mobile web site_ 53

Figure 32 Chart 5 Educational background_ 53

Figure 33 Chart 6 What type of data connection did you use?_ 54

Figure 34 Chart 7 How would you rate the speed of page loading?_ 54

Figure 35 Chart 8 How often do you change your mobile phone?_ 55

Figure 36 Chart 9 What manufacturer 55

Figure 37 Chart 10 Gender 56

Figure 38 Chart 11 Age_ 56

Table of tables

Table 1 Mobile website do's and don'ts 29

Table 2 Keywords for searches 33

Table 3 2010 and 2009 market share of mobile phones sold by manufacturer 34

Table 4 Questions and answers 51

Table 5 Table of Yes No questions 57

Table 6 Test plan_ 59

Hypotheses

Will I be able to produce a standards based mobile web site that is not overtaken by technological advances?


 

The problem

The most significant problem for developing a mobile web site for DIAL House Chester is technological advancement and because we are utilising the throwaway prototyping methodology never ending implementations of a prototype, we have constant scope-creep.

DIAL House Chester is a disability rights charity, and they require a lowest common denominator approach to their online communications. This proves to be quite challenge as there is a significant fragmentation in the operating system environment, alas a question not asked.


 

Research goals

Figure 1 Mobile website lifecycle

To investigate the mobile web site lifecycle

Figure 1 outlines the cycle of almost any web site, but specifically for DIAL House Chester, it shows that content is king, and the primary driver in the forwards of the development of the mobile web site. To this end a document was created that contained all of the site content; it was this document hat facilitated the creation of the first prototype, the pure HTML version of the site.

Next and probably the most important factor for DIAL House Chester is the usability of the site, it has to cater to the broadest of populations: including as many groups with disabilities as is possible.

Finally in this lifecycle we have the iconography used to communicate page links and content. The iconography needs to be intuitive as well as attractive to the user of the mobile web site. It is this wow factor or a sense of immediate familiarity with the sight is our design goal.

Research Objectives

To search databases for keywords

To survey users on what they think about the site

To understand the differences in the mark-up languages used, specifically XHTML and XHTML MP

Stages of Work and Structure

1.       Planning

2.       Analysis

3.       Design

4.       Implementation

5.       Maintenance

Figure 2 Systems analysis methodology framework

As we can see from this simple plan the stages necessary to complete the project.

To research:

I will investigate what is considered good design for accessibility and presentation, starting with the W3C standards for mobile phone websites moving on to survey “public opinions”.

I will undertake an evaluation of the appropriate encodation of media files.

I will investigate the market segmentation

To profile a target number of questionnaires of 72

o   1 message failed

o   71 were delivered

o   24 were returned


 

Introduction

DIAL House Chester wants a mobile phone version of their current web site, it has to be standards driven and cater to as many internet mobile phone uses as possible.

DIAL House Chester wish to extend their communication reach into the mobile arena, by implementing a wide reaching mobile phone targeted web site. Their current W3C compliant website does not display well on the current majority of web enabled mobile phones, and only semi-satisfactorily on the high end devices, e.g. Apples iPhone and other similar products displaying at resolutions of 480 x 320 pixels.

This dissertation is about the design, development and deployment of a standards based mobile web site, which has to be highly accessible across as wide a range of mobile phone platforms as possible.

Considering the product life cycles for the mobile phones: early adopters of the latest technologically advanced mobile phones enjoy broadband speeds of download and full colour screen touch screen resolutions of 480 x 320 pixels: this however is not what the majority of sold mobile phone resolutions and interfaces represent. We are aiming for the mature market phase encompassing both early and late adopters of the technology. The mobile website for DIAL House Chester will target a screen resolution of 176 x 220 pixels, whilst ensuring that the site will be legible and navigable in two other browser sizes. See Accessibility.

The mobile site that we are developing will use industry standards: page sizes, page loads, navigation techniques to ensure that page layouts utilise existing corporate web branding, the site will where ever possible will employ content from the existing highly successful PC orientated web site. http://www.dialhousechester.org.uk/

Research topics for this dissertation will be: the deployment of the web site, focus areas of my research will include: hosting considerations, bandwidth demands, communications protocols and mark-up languages.


 

Personal Involvement

Introduction

In this chapter I will discuss the various methodologies available for the design, development and deployment of the mobile web site for DIAL house Chester; together with my personal contribution to project.

I have never designed or developed let alone deployed a mobile web site, so this dissertation will expand my knowledge and understanding of a wide range of modular based activities: systems analysis, managing a computer based organisation, network infrastructure. Together with a range of non-modular activities include: research, programming, graphical design, mobile phones

The dissertation allows me to research into the design of websites for mobile phones, as well as extending my knowledge of a wide variety of software applications used in the development of the site.

It will provide me with new skills: the development of several more programmatic languages, project planning, structured systems analysis for the design phase of the dissertation

The creation of a mobile web site for DIAL House Chester has both proved to be immensely challenging and hugely rewarding. I have had to learn new programming languages from the ground upwards and utilise development applications that I have not previously used to successfully deliver a finished solution that met DIAL House Chester’s communications objectives. The development of this mobile web site has cemented my understanding of the systems analysis lifecycle, improved my project management skills, developed my report writing and enforced a time management discipline that I have been lacking.

The project has benefitted me in a number of other ways as well: it has significantly enhanced my technical knowledge; it has enriched my verbal and written communication skills and highlighted the value of planning.

I set about the project in the following way:

1.       Planning

·         Task scheduling, Figure 21 Part 1 of the project plan and Figure 22 Part 2 of the project plan

2.       Analysis

·         UML models, Figure 18 Mark-up language direction of evolution

3.       Design

·         Adobe master suit

4.       Implementation

·         Throwaway prototyping

5.       Maintenance

·         Updates based on research comments

Methodology Selection

There are a number of recognised analytical methodologies available for the development of software projects, which the DIAL House Chester mobile web site is. These methodologies range from the highly structured sequential mechanism, as in the Waterfall methodology; to the un-structured ad-hoc mechanisms of Extreme Programming (XP).

This leaves us with a choice, which methodology is best suited for the DIAL House Chester mobile web site. The selection of an analytical methodology is not as straight forwards as one might think, as one methodology does not fit all projects, they all have strengths and weaknesses. After careful consideration I have chosen to use the Rapid Application Development (RAD) category of methodologies. This class of methodologies has three distinct approaches:

·         Phased

·         Prototyping

·         Throwaway prototyping.

Each of these approaches has significant merit and can offer a viable solution to the problem. Having further evaluated these methods the most suitable for this project I feel is the: Throwaway prototyping methodology utilising time-boxing. Throwaway prototyping is the preferable methodology because it balances the benefits of a well thought-out analysis and design phase with the advantages of using prototypes to refine the solution. Time-boxing is a scope management technique which develops fixed deadlines for the delivery of the system. These deadlines have to be met no matter what, and it allows for compromises in functionality, but not quality to meet deadlines.

Planning

To implement this stage of the development methodology a number of briefs were prepared, these were: a Strategic brief, a Technical brief, a Functional brief, a Creative brief and a Content plan. The aim of these briefs is to provide a framework for the development of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site.

The combination of the these well-defined briefs and the pure html structure, Figure 7 DIAL House web site map, and the tasking diagrams: provides a solid framework for building upon. It is this platform which we build upon.

Strategic brief

Mission statement

To design, develop and deploy standards based accessible mobile web site for DIAL House Chester at a target resolution space of 176 x 220 pixels for delivery mid-2011.

Figure 3 176 x 220 pixels screen size

Marketing goals

The web site is targeted at “the most commonly available” mobile phone is use in the UK

Web site will be user friendly

3 most common screen sizes are:

·         128x128

·         176x220

·         288x322 pixels

A clear concise mobile version of the current internet website

Competitive analysis

DIAL House Chester as a charity specialising in disability rights has the generic competition from all mobile websites, but the target market for the site is people who already know about DIAL House Chester. Every effort will be made to publicise the mobile site.

User requirements

A mobile phone capable of receiving internet WAP communication

A browser resolution exceeding: 128x128 pixels.

The test platform will be a Nokia N70

Branding strategy

Branding will see a mark divergence from the consistent of the corporate standards laid out for the current online site. The mobile site will be an iconographical representation.

Several images will be use and they will not exceed a width of 164 pixels, and they will be a mix of jpg and gif files.

The rest of the site will use CSS to define a corporate layout

Colours used:

·         background-color: #FFF;

·         Foreground #default

·         Text #default

Metrics for your success

The site can be viewed and successfully navigated on the test platform, a Nokia N70.

The site is correctly hosted and delivers the intended content to the mobile phone device.

Technical brief

Visitors' equipment

·         A mobile phone capable of receiving GPRS WAP communications.

·         A browser resolution exceeding 128x128 pixels.

The test platform will be a Nokia N70 176 x 208 pixels

Monitor size

3 most common screen sizes are: 128x128, 176x220 and 288x322, so we will be designing in the 288x322 space with a target resolution of 176 x 208 pixels

 

Figure 4 Screen resolutions

Nokia N70 176 x 208 pixels

Figure 5 Nokia N70 displaying the DIAL House Chester mobile web site home page

 

Connection speed

GPRS typically 32 - 48 kbps

Mobile phone processor speed

Amount of RAM

110 Mbytes

Colour depth

16 million colours

Installed plug-ins

1Gb microSD

Functional brief

What the site should do for visitors

Provide information about DIAL House Chester

Easily navigable contact us page

List of features

·         Multiple graphics

·         Iconic menu system

·         Text links

·         Content

Now

·         XHTML MP version of the site

Future

·         Audio and video

Creative brief

Proposed visual design directions to explore

Using CSS to create a boxed effect for links

Links list

Objectives of the upcoming creative exploration

Explore the use of WML cards

Audience

People that are aware of DIAL House Chester

Mobile phone savvy disabled people

The "story" the site should tell

Index page featuring aims and objectives and links for history, how to find us and client facilities, etc.


 

Links:

Page Name

Named Links

services.html

·         Café

·         Shopmobility

·         Advice and information

·         Volunteering

news.html

·         Special commendation

·         1000th Customer

vacancies.html

·         Voluntary Work

·         Paid work

fundraising.html

 

links.html

 

contact.html

 

picture gallery.html

http://picasaweb.google.co.uk/DIALHouseChester

accessibility.html

 

Tone and imagery that the site should take on

The tone of the site will be dictated to by the already in place corporate web site. It will utilise a CSS set background colour with the DIAL House Chester logo featuring at the top of the page.

The iconography will resemble that of a phone app, being touch screen orientated. Research shows that the majority of respondents had smart phones

Content plan

Who is responsible for what content and when.

The content of the mobile web site is defined by the document: DIAL House Chester mobile site development.

Description of the deliverable

Deployable standards based accessible mobile web site for DIAL House Chester at a target resolution of 288x322 pixels for delivery mid-2011.

Content provider

DIAL House Chester

Writer/editor

Andrew Jones

James Williamson

Due date

Mid 2011

Date submitted

Thursday, 30 June 2016

Priority

Medium

Analysis

The development and preparation of the planning briefs significantly aids the requirements determination stage of the project. The briefs provide a definition of clear and concise goals which can be agreed upon by all parties involved in the project. They have created a framework for the design stages of the project which can be readily implemented into prototypes for evaluation against a pre-defined set of criteria.

After additional research the WML version of the site will not be developed. This is for a couple of reasons: less than 1% of visitors to the most popular mobile web sites use WML over WAP to browse web pages and the hosting requirements for the delivery of a WML site prove to be too costly for DIAL House Chester.

Design

The design phase, although revisited a number of times through the prototype iterations was almost certainly the most straight forwards of stages. The development of the detailed briefs ensured that this stage was not much more difficult than the assembly of a jig-saw puzzle.

The design phase had a number of iterations from plain text based through stylised and graphical to the current iconographical layout.

Figure 6 Early home page iteration

Development

A number of prototypes have been created with the final solution being a combination of the best features from each of the prototypes.

Initially an exacting standards based html version was created. This version presented a navigable version of the site featuring all of the content. It was the development of this document set that I hit the proverbial home run. It was from this point in that I knew I was going to successfully develop the site; it opened a door in my understanding of XML XHTML and HTML.

Figure 7 DIAL House web site map

This prototype provided the foundations for the further development of the site. A number of minor design changes were recognised and implemented into the next prototype. With the development of the second prototype several issues were raised and a different design direction sought.

This step change in design is all down to Rob Tonnessen, he provided the raw png’s that I modified in Fireworks, taking on board the comments made in the user research about font sizes, capitalisation and consistency. And, the new design direction was in place.

Figure 8 A new design direction

Implementation

The deployment and publication of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site will be via the URL http://www.dialhousechester.org.uk/mobile/

This method of deployment and publication has been chosen because of costs and organisational change, it does not require DIAL House Chester to change their hosting package or the implementation of pre-host processing to evaluate the target browser and deliver the appropriate site.

The actual implementation of the production site will involve utilising the Filezilla FTP client to transfer the completed development site from the testing environment to the live, publically available production server.

Figure 9 Filezilla client connected to the testing server


 

Aims

To design, develop and deploy standards based accessible mobile web site for DIAL House Chester at a target resolution of 176 x 220 pixels for delivery mid-2011.

Learn to programme in XML and XHTML MP.

Objectives

To extend my knowledge and application of systems analysis, by applying recognised frameworks and toolset methodologies for the design and development phases. Figure 2 Systems analysis methodology framework.

To improve my ability to plan, design, develop and implement projects.

To learn about the hosting environments and communication’s infrastructure necessary to deploy a mobile web site.


 

Background

DIAL House Chester

We aim to enable disabled people and older people to live sustained, independent lives. 

We seek to achieve our aim by:

·    Reducing poverty of disabled people and older people

·    Improving the economic status of disabled people and older people

·    Reducing social isolation

·    Improving health and well being

·    Raising awareness of the needs and aspirations of disabled people

·    Providing opportunities for volunteering, training and employment

DIAL House was founded in 1981 as a result of the International Year of the Disabled. We are a Registered Charity and run by an elected Management Committee.

The DIAL House building opened in 1986, principally to provide a city centre location for people with disabilities and their carers to access disability-related advice and information and to obtain rest and refreshment in a welcoming, accessible environment. DIAL House Chester is affiliated to the national organisation Dial UK.

DIAL House continues to be run by and for people with disabilities. We offer a unique, client led service to disabled people, older people and carers, as well as to voluntary, statutory and private bodies in West Cheshire and the surrounding area.

(DIAL House Chester, 2010)

DIAL House Chester is keen to service a broader communications framework as part of their marketing and communications strategy. To facilitate this they would like to produce a mobile phone orientated internet site.

Hardware and software requirements

The web site will be developed using

·         Microsoft Visual studio

·         The Microsoft office 2010 toolkit

·         Adobe’s CS4 Master Suit

It will utilise the Filezilla ftp client

Use a Nokia N70 phone as the test platform.

The web site is targeted at “the most commonly available” mobile phone is use in the UK and tested solely on a Nokia N70, an emulator is available at emulator.mtld.mobi/emulator.php


 

Mobile Web Sites

Do’s

Don’ts

·         Use CSS for layout ensuring maximum browser compatibility

·         Code the site using XML or XHTML

·         Use a character encoding set at UTF-8

·         Put the important information at the top of the page

·         Streamline the menu system

·         Design to scroll vertically

·         Facilitate touch screen technology

·         Ensure that any graphics are in jpeg or gif formats

·         Provide back buttons

·         Keep to a page size of 20 kilobytes maximum

·         Use tables for the main layout of the page

·         Deviate from standards

·         Include Flash objects

·         Use java script

·         Avoid pop-ups

·         Use large graphics

·         Stray from corporate banding

Table 1 Mobile website do's and don'ts

Table 1 details a list of do and don’t for the development of mobile web sites, this table has been compiled from a variety of sources with no one specific site providing much more than a guide. The net result is keeping it simple and standards driven. Use XHTML as the language of development and make users aware of where they are in the site at any given time. Navigation should be consistent throughout the site.

Communications planning

Standards

WAP 2.0 is an open international standard. XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP), is the markup language defined in WAP 2.0 (Wireless Application Protocol Forum Ltd., 2002)

Lightweight pages written in:

·         Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) or,

·         Wireless Markup Language (WML)

Accessibility

3 most common screen sizes are: 128x128, 176x220 and 288x322 see Figures 2, 3 and 4.

Figure 10 128 x 128 pixels optimised image size

Figure 11 176 x 220 pixels Main Graphic Size

Figure 12 288 x 322 pixels Smart Phones

·         The site must be programmed using XHTML or XML

·         Page content load times must be kept to a minimum, 20 kilobytes maximum.


Literature Review

The aim of the review is to “…provide a picture of the state of knowledge and major questions in the subject” (Bell, 2005) for it felt that “…without it you will not acquire an understanding of your topic”. (Bell, 2005)

The “critical” element of the review: requires: the collation of facts, describe what is, question assumptions, query claims made, compare researchers and evaluate.

Figure 13 State of Knowledge and Major Questions

Introduction

In this section I have evaluated the current technological drivers.

The market segmentation

 

Conclusion

Keywords, major issues and categories

This literature review will look at the big questions in Mobile phone website development: Accessibility, Communications and protocol standards. It will consider the result of keyword searches in Google, Business Source Elite, Emerald Management Xtra Lexis Library (formerly Nexis UK) and Science Direct databases.


 

Keywords

Table 2 Keywords for searches

·         Mobile Phone website

·         Mobile phone website accessibility

·         Mobile phone technologies

·         Mobile phone communications

·         Mobile phone protocol standards

·         Mobile phone design

·         Mobile phone media formats

·         Project management

·         Mobile phone programming languages

·         Mobile phone mark-up languages

 

Major issues

Figure 14 Major issues

Accessibility

Meaning the Mobile website has to be accessible via a mobile phone with internet capability. That design guides are kept to. Account must be taken of the advanced features of touch screen technologies.

Figure 15 Windows Phone 7

Communications

According to: Gartner, Inc: Smartphone sales to end users reached 54.3 million units. Worldwide mobile phone sales to end users totalled 314.7 million units in the first quarter of 2010. Forecast 12,588 million units for 2010.

Figure 16 Chart 1 Sales of mobile phones 2009 - 2010

Table 3 2010 and 2009 market share of mobile phones sold by manufacturer

1Q 2010

Units

1Q 2010 Market Share (%)

1Q 2009

Units

1Q 2009 Market Share (%)

Nokia

110,105.6

35.0

97,398.2

36.2

Samsung

64,897.1

20.6

51,385.4

19.1

LG

27,190.1

8.6

26,546.9

9.9

RIM

10,552.5

3.4

7,233.5

2.7

Sony Ericsson

9,865.6

3.1

14,470.3

5.4

Motorola

9,574.5

3.0

16,587.3

6.2

Apple

8,359.7

2.7

3,938.8

1.5

ZTE

5,375.4

1.7

3,369.6

1.3

G-Five

4,345.0

1.4

 

 

Huawei

3,970.0

1.3

3,217.9

1.2

Others

60,418.1

19.2

44,972.2

16.5

Total

314,653.50

100.0

269,120.10

100.0

Source: Gartner (May 2010)

Figure 17 Chart 2 Market share analysis

(Gartner Inc., 2010)

We do not want to be designing our mobile website for the wrong devices. As Table 2 and Figure 7 show Nokia are by far the largest manufacturer of mobile phones, they are nearly outselling their closest competitor by a factor of two.

Protocol standards

4th generation

To provide broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices, and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices.

3rd Generation:

A minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle

Wireless Application Protocol, WAP 2.0

Mobile devices process XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP),

GPRS: General packet radio services is a packet-based wireless communication service based on GSM networks and complements existing services like circuit-switched cellular phone connections and SMS. GPRS provides data rates from up to 114 Kbps. (SearchMobileComputing.com, 2010)

Categories

It will also focus on design accessibility, 7 usability guidelines for websites on mobile devices, has influenced the design ethos for developing DIAL House Chester’s mobile website.

It will feature a review of mark-up languages: XML, WML and XHTML Mobile Profile. This group of mark-up languages differs slightly from html which I am very familiar with. There is hierarchy of language development.

Figure 18 Mark-up language direction of evolution

XHTML MP sights atop the tree in development languages as the current “hot” flavour for development. WML is the older root language for Mobile phones; it was required when the internet had to fit mobile phones not as we now have the situation where mobile phones fit the Internet. XML is the dynamic language that transitions WML to XHTML MP.

Why choose one over another, WML is the root mark-up language for the development of mobile phone websites. XML and XHTML MP offer a wider target browser and they are higher level development mark-up languages. XML is the root language for XHTML MP.

Resourced Reviewed

XHTML for Mobile

·         http://www.w3.org/TR/tr-technology-stds#tr_XHTML_For_Mobile

·         http://www.xml.com/pub/a/2004/04/14/mobile.html?page=1

·         http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/mobile-markup-xhtml-basic-1-1/

XML

·         http://www.w3.org/TR/tr-technology-stds#tr_XML

·         XML in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition

WML

·         http://www.developershome.com/wap/wml/wml_tutorial.asp?page=template

A discussion of technological convergence

Technological convergence always happens as we progress in both time and sophistication. There is a tendency for different technological systems to evolve enabling them to performing similar tasks.

Today’s mobile phone is so much more than just a device for voice communications, it is at least a device that:

Mobile Phone Glossary offers a detailed explanation of Mobile phone technologies and standards.

Mobile phones will play a crucial role in the development of communications technology. The mobile phone is a good example of technological convergence with a broad spectrum of technologies coming together in one device.

Towards Convergence of WML, XHTML, and other W3C Technologies

In their article (Wugofski & Raggett, 2010)they discuss the various technological issues that we are covering and decide that convergence is high on the cards, as with other systems there is homogenisation in the development of technologies.

The communications infrastructure is increasingly becoming IP orientated as the Internet takes true hold, with Mobile phones becoming true network IP devices.

A practical evaluation of programming languages

The languages do not differ significantly from the basic core of HTML. Although in their implementation of this root language they are all diversifying and extending functionality. The language of choice for mobile phone development is XHTML MP, which is a reduced functionality language derived from XHTML, which differs from ordinary HTML in its’ implementation by requiring strict applications of tags – the major components of web site mark-up and other dialect nuances.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0

Perceivable

o    Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.

o    Provide alternatives for time-based media.

o    Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

o    Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

Operable

o    Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

o    Provide users enough time to read and use content.

o    Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

o    Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.

Understandable

o    Make text content readable and understandable.

o    Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

o    Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

Robust

o    Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

(Caldwell, Cooper, Guarino , & Vanderheiden, 2010)

W3C standards

“…guidelines will make content accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, cognitive limitations, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity and combinations of these.” (Caldwell, Cooper, Guarino , & Vanderheiden, 2010)

Accessibility

Figure 19 Understanding the four principles of accessibility

1.       Perceivable

Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

o    This means that users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses)

2.       Operable

User interface components and navigation must be operable.

o    This means that users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that a user cannot perform)

3.       Understandable

Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.

o    This means that users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface (the content or operation cannot be beyond their understanding)

4.       Robust

Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

o    This means that users must be able to access the content as technologies advance (as technologies and user agents evolve, the content should remain accessible)

(Caldwell, Cooper, Guarino , & Vanderheiden, 2010)

Some sites that are considered good design

·         bbc.co.uk/mobile

·         http://m.digg.com/

·         http://i.brightkite.com

·         http://www.taptu.mobi

·         http://m.yellowpages.com

·         http://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/h.html

·         http://m.mailchimp.com

·         http://i.viget.com

·         http://BofA.mobi

·         http://m.facebook.com

·         http://singlehop.mobi/

·         http://coosh.com/iphone/

·         http://m.webdesignerdepot.com/

·         http://mattbangophotography.mobify.me/

·         http://www.nike.com/nikelab/i/app.html#en_GB/home

·         http://m.flickr.com

Design is in the eye of the beholder, all of the sites above have merit from an aesthetic point of view. The sites also meet there own target market focus. The sites emphasis the point of having strong design briefs with clear aims and objectives.

Media file standards and the tools for encoding

·         3GP

3GPP file format is a multimedia container format, and have the filename extension .3gp

·         15+ Cell Phone Media Formats Explained

Hosting requirements for m. or mobile domain

There are no barriers to the hosting of the DIAL House Chester mobile website; it will exist as a directory of the main site once implemented. For reasons of cost the site has to be implemented in this fashion. DIAL House Chester does not have the resources available for a more sophisticated hosting solution which would allow for server side scripting and m. domain handling.

Communications infrastructure for mobile web sites

Figure 20 WAP browser communications map


An evaluation of project management

Figure 21 Part 1 of the project plan

There was not a lot of time and a great deal to do in the design and implementation of DIAL Houses’ mobile web site, and a comprehensive project plan that was adhered too was necessary. By creating the tasks and their durations and utilising MS project I was able to successfully map the time taken in the creation of the key strategic briefs of: strategy, technical, functional, creative and content: as well as the planning the project as whole.

Figure 22 Part 2 of the project plan

Figures 11 and 12 show screen shots of the project plan which I successfully adhered too. By creating this Gantt chart I was able to direct my focus to the key areas necessary for the successful completion of the planning and design phases of the project, it also provided a bench mark for the prototypes produced in the development of the mobile web site. Without this plan I feel that the creation of the mobile site for DIAL House Chester would have been significantly more laborious and we would have been developing a larger number of prototypes, as it was we only required three.


A discussion about systems analysis and design

Figure 23 Outline HTML structure for the Mobile phone web site

Figure 13 shows the structure of the HTML version of the DIAL House web site. We had planned to mimic this in the implementation of the mobile web, but research showed that the majority of visitors to mobile web sites want contact and how to find us information first and foremost all other information is of secondary importance (mobiThinking.com, 2011) this meant redesigning the mobile site to accommodate these needs and placing links for the contact us and how to find us information at the top of the page, the first icons that are seen. Despite research comments that suggest a different order of iconography.

Planning

Prototyping UML documents for the analysis of throwaway prototyping

Figure 24 Use case for the DIAL House Chester web site

 

Figure 25 More modelling of the index.html interaction

Technical feasibility

The review of programming languages, mark-up systems and hosting requirements demonstrates my understanding of the deliverables for the project.

Economic feasibility

There will be a direct cost to DIAL House Chester for the hosting of the Mobile website. The only other economic factor is time.

Organisational feasibility

Figure 26 DIAL House Chester IT and IS Support team

James Williamson will act as direct liaison for DIAL House Chester and will have final design and implementation approval.

On approval becomes project management


 

Analysis

Use case name: Visiting the DIAL House Chester Mobile web site

ID: 001

Importance level: High

 

Primary actor: Web site Visitor

 

Short description: This use case describes how a web site visitor can navigate the site.

 

Trigger: web site visitor searches Web for and finds DIAL House Chester Mobile Website

Type: External                   Temporal

 

Major Inputs

Major outputs

 

Description

Source

Description

Destination

accessibility.jpg

Accessibility.html

Mobile browser

callus.jpg

Callus.html

Mobile browser

clientfacilities.jpg

Clientfacilities.html

Mobile browser

 

 

contactus.jpg

Contactus.html

Mobile browser

Home.jpg

Home.html

workforus.jpg

Workforus.html

usefullinks.jpg

Usefullinks.html

thegallery.jpg

Thegallery.html

ourservices.jpg

Ourservices.html

ourhistory.jpg

Ourhistory.html

openinghours.jpg

Openinghours.html

latestnews.jpg

Latestnews.html

fundraising.jpg

fundraising.html

findus.jpg

findus.html

Major Steps Performed

 

Information for steps

 

 

1.        

 

 

 

Adapted from Figure 5-1 p.150 (Dennis, Wixom, & Roth, 2006)

Design

The target for our design ideal is the test platform of the Nokia N70, show in Figure 27 Nokia N70 showing DIAL House Chester index.html

I wanted a fresh iconic presentation for the web site, after all it’s for a mobile phone and DIAL House Chester are looking into a future whereby customers will be able to pre-order food from the café before arriving for their pre-booked meeting with an advisor.

Figure 27 Nokia N70 showing DIAL House Chester index.html

Learning WML & WML Script, XML and XHTML

Figure 28 the Internet revolution

As the TCP/IP internet stream rolls forwards cogs in the systems are removed as time refines the process. We see from any market based technology the tendency is towards convergence. In the old days the internet had to fit the mobile phone, now the mobile phone has to fit the internet. The IP network that is the internet is all prevailing and todays modern smartphone hand set extends that convergence.


 

Feedback and user survey results

James and Neil are both very keen on the current implementation of the site, although Neil wants to place the icons in a different order, and he is supported by a user survey, although I think that it may be his view expressed via a third party – or there are genuine coincidences.

Figure 29 Questionnaire decision tree


 

Table 4 Questions and answers

Question ID

Question

Answer

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

1 - 2 years

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

 less than 6 months

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

 6 months to 1 year

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

 2 - 3 years

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

 3 - 4 years

Q01

How long have you had your internet capable phone?

 4 - 5 years

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  Hated it

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  really poor

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  quite poor

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  poor

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  average

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  really liked it

Q02

What do you think of the design of the DIAL House Chester mobile web site?

  loved it

Q03

Can you view the pages?

Yes

Q03

Can you view the pages?

No

Q04

Do the images display?

Yes

Q04

Do the images display?

No

Q05

Is the text (font size) comfortable to read?

Yes

Q05

Is the text (font size) comfortable to read?

No

Q06

Educational Background

 High School

Q06

Educational Background

 Further Education

Q06

Educational Background

 Higher Education

Q06

Educational Background

 Masters

Q06

Educational Background

 PHD

Q07

Could you navigate to the information you wanted to find within two clicks?

Yes

Q07

Could you navigate to the information you wanted to find within two clicks?

No

Q08

What type of data connection did you use?

Wi-Fi

Q08

What type of data connection did you use?

HSDPA

Q08

What type of data connection did you use?

3G+

Q08

What type of data connection did you use?

GPRS

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

quite quick

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

tediously slow

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

very slow

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

slow

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

acceptable

Q09

How would you rate the speed of page loading?

very quick

Q10

How often do you change your phone?

 Quarterly

Q10

How often do you change your phone?

 every 6 months

Q10

How often do you change your phone?

 Never

Q12

Do you generally use the internet on your phone?

Yes

Q13

Were there any glitches on your handset?

Yes

 

Figure 30 Chart 3 How long have you had your internet capable phone?

Looking at how long people had had their mobile phone nearly 36% had only had an internet capable phone for between 1 and 2 years with a surprising number of 21.5% have had an internet capable phone for between 4 and 5 years. See Figure 30 Chart 3 How long have you had your internet capable phone?

Figure 31 Chart 4 What do you think of the design of the mobile web site

53% of visitors to the site liked it, with 36% of visitors thinking it was average and 7% hating it. I will take this as an endorsement of the design change as over half the people expressing an opinion liked the site. See Figure 30 Chart 3 How long have you had your internet capable phone?

Figure 32 Chart 5 Educational background

A surprising number of degree educated visitors to the sight, 64%, the more expected Higher Education only scored 29%. I was genuinely surprised to see a PhD in the results, although he hated the site and thought it was slow, as well as none of the images showing he wasn’t able to see the pages: all in all a miserable experience. See Figure 32 Chart 5 Educational background

Figure 33 Chart 6 What type of data connection did you use?

The surprise here is Wi-Fi, with 64%, I expected 3G and 3G+ to make a stronger showing they are the balancing 36%. This could lead one to speculate that the devices in use are sophisticated hand held devices, this coupled to the fact that the majority of web site visitor have only had their internet capable mobile phones for between 1 and 2 years. Smart phones are the way in which the market is progressing. The key for Dial House Chester is to ensure that the mobile sight work well on these devices.

Figure 34 Chart 7 How would you rate the speed of page loading?

71% felt that it was quite quick and 21% felt that it was fast. This reflects the connection speeds seen in Figure 33 Chart 6 What type of data connection did you use?. The acceptable and tediously slow votes go to balance out the survey. In a sample of this size 80, I would expect there be to a bad experience or two and there be a marked number of oks. As it was we only saw 1 of each. Figure 34 Chart 7 How would you rate the speed of page loading?

Speed of page loading was a design criteria, we aimed to keep the page load size to 32K the home page is significantly larger than the rest of the site. With the exception of the home page all the rest of the site meets this fundamental requirement of a page load not exceeding 32K.

Figure 35 Chart 8 How often do you change your mobile phone?

Not surprisingly in this fast moving consumer goods environment an annual change of technology has become the norm, not the Moore’s law 18 months of technological product development. In the next 6 months we will see Apple launch both the iPhone 5 and the iPhone 6! So our visitors are showing not many of them want to be in long term contracts with mobile phone providers and manufacturers.

Figure 36 Chart 9 What manufacturer

We see quite a mixed bag with the manufacturers question, Apple, Blackberry and HTC all scored “heavily”. So we see touch screens and qwerty keyboards as the key features that consumers are buying with these handsets, by the look of these numbers touchscreen is wining out.

Figure 37 Chart 10 Gender

A two thirds splits between males and female, the surprise here for me was the number of females that responded. I was expecting a male dominated results set so I am pleased with the inclusion of a female perspective. Figure 37 Chart 10 Gender

Figure 38 Chart 11 Age

The majority of visitors are older than I was expecting, 43% aged 25 – 29, not the 20 – 24 group I thought would make up the majority, although they scored a 36% showing. Meaning nearly 80% of visitors were under the age of 30. Figure 38 Chart 11 Age.


 

Question

Answer

Count

Can you view the pages?

Yes

12

Can you view the pages?

No

1

Do the images display?

Yes

12

Do the images display?

No

1

Is the text (font size) comfortable to read?

Yes

11

Is the text (font size) comfortable to read?

No

2

Could you navigate to the information you wanted to find within two clicks?

Yes

Could you navigate to the information you wanted to find within two clicks?

No

4

Do you generally use the internet on your phone?

No

6

Do you generally use the internet on your phone?

Yes

9

Were there any glitches on your handset?

No

6

Were there any glitches on your handset?

Yes

Can you think of anything else to add?

No

5

Can you think of anything else to add?

Yes

mobile design not neccessary with a smartphone. horizontal menu a bad idea because of narrow screens on most mobile phones. menu only exists on home page (bad)

rearrange the icons on the home page where for example start from "our history" " our Services" " Client facilities" "The galary" ""Work for us" "Funderaising" "latest news and last the opening hours and contacts. the other thing is "call us" and "Contact us" are the same so get rid off call us. for descriptive text under each icon use smaller size and start words with capital letters and keep consistent.

us page text appears so small that the user would have to zoom in. over all its a good work but it needs some basic enhancments as mentioned. main thing keep consistent

the home button at the base of the page would have been in my personal opinion more aesthetically pleasing a the top of the page and maybe the addition of Google maps for the map on the how to find us section would be great!

Have I missed anything that you might expect to find?

No

5

Table 5 Table of Yes No questions

The majority of survey visitors were able to view the pages which displayed properly for them; they were able to easily read the text on the pages. A surprising number could not find information within two clicks; the surprise is that the entire sight is only one click deep! A significant 2/5ths of people don not generally use the internet on their mobile phone. See Table 5 Table of Yes No questions.

Overall I am pleased with a number of things about the survey that I have carried out: that I actually did the survey itself, initially I was sceptical about the value it would hold. The volume of response has genuinely pleased me from a sample of 72 people we had 24 respondents, a success rate of 33%, a significantly higher number than I had expected.

Are there any other comments you wish to make about the operation of the website itself or the process of browsing the sight?


 

Test Plan

Test ID

Test

Expected Result

Nokia N70

Sony K750

Windows Phone

000

index.html loads

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

001

callus.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

002

findus.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

003

openingtimes.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

004

ourservices.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

005

clientfacilities.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

006

ourhistory.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

007

usefullinks.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

008

news.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

009

thegallery link

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

010

workforus.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

011

accessibility.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

012

fundraising.html

The page loads

ü

ü

ü

Table 6 Test plan

Carrying out the test plan has opened up the number of devices tested. Originally I was only going to test on the Nokia N70, which was considered as “the” platform when it was originally produced. My original thinking was if it worked on this platform it would pretty much work on any platform. What we have to remember is that all of these devices are in fact mobile phones: and making calls is what they are all about: the prominence given to the call us icon shows DIAL House Chester’s commitment to leading the way in developing consumer lead projects. Mobile web visitors want call us and how to find us information above all else, and these two pages are critical to a success metric.

The call us page presents the telephone number and invoked dialling dilemma: telephone number dialler invoked call making is not consistent across the platforms: it is at this stage a combination of two tags or the presentation of a telephone number in an internationally recognised way. Of the two tags the newer tel tag has not yet been implemented, in consultation with the client we have decided that it is an area for future development. We have implemented the widely supported wtai://wp/mc; tag as well as presenting the telephone numbers in the internationally recognised way.

Evidence

Evidence was gathered by entering the url of the testing server into to the various mobile phones: the test platform Nokia n70, the equally popular Sony Ericsson K750 as well as the Windows Phone 7. Each of the sites links was tested and they displayed correctly and the site performed as expected with each of the pages loading correctly. 24 users utilising 5 different manufacturers have tested the site and have found it to be acceptable.


 

Hand over

This is a tricky part in any project: the prototype and production testing version are now considered to be the same and a line drawn under their development. This is the stage where the client takes control of the code and deploys the commercial version. This is going to create a lot of work for the client as they have to significantly modify their existing site to accommodate the publication of the mobile web site, as well as having to promote it in search engines as a separate entity. At what point is the line drawn and the project considered complete? In this instance we went for a specific time and date when all development and design would stop for version 01 of the prototype and the house keeping task of writing the disc would start.

As far as the physical handoff is concerned a copy of the code and all project files will be burnt to disc and given to DIAL House Chester. An e-mail of the zipped code was also sent to James Williamson and Neil Barr for them to deploy the final version. Where they will use the ftp client to make a new directory under the existing domain name space and transfer the site so that it is available at the http://www.dialhousechester.org.uk/mobile/ url.

Creating the completed project disc for the client involved quite a lot of file and folder management, until this point the project documents had been arranged so that I alone could work on them, not necessarily what’s good as presentation to the client. Anyway an hours’ worth of file and folder shuffling later we are finished and have the completed disc for handover to the client.

I understand that DIAL House is in the throes of transferring their domain hosting package to enable greater support, facilities and services. This will only enhance the delivery of the mobile web site and opens the development of DIAL House Chester’s web site itself.

I understand that Neil Barr, DIAL House Chester, has tested the sight against a popular open source screen reader and that it passed with flying colours. The only puzzling negative was that the screen reader read the full url of the images as a local path. It’s useful hacking information as well as a little irritating, Neil was convinced that it was reader setting that he hadn’t switched off yet, as he was just learning the reader software and the mobile site was a good test for him as well. This reader test is a solid validation of the XHTML MP code implemented in the site. A stated communication goal is lowest common denominator, and the fact that it is an open source screen reader successfully reading device specific code is amazing!

Future Work

The implementation of DIAL House Chester’s mobile web site has seen a significant design influence into the web communications mix. The hosting changes mentioned earlier offer DIAL House Chester a step change in communications mix technologies: it opens the door on server side scripting and content management positions. DIAL House Chester has long struggled with the on-going addition of content to the web site. They invested a lot of money in the existing web site and are keen to leverage this investment, but it does not lend itself well to being extended.

It is at this juncture that DIAL House Chester finds itself: do they continue to attempt to modify the existing structure to meet their communications needs or do they re-design the structure to meet their current and future needs, opening communications channels that have previously been closed to them, after all this is the 21st Century – we can order a coffee to go via mobile phone these days.


 

Conclusion

I have enjoyed implementing this project. It has stretched me in so many ways: the systems analysis framework, planning, implementation, the writing of my dissertation itself! My toolset knowledge has improved enormously: I am now able to integrate so many more applications as sources of data or imagery. This document alone comprises of data from seven applications!

This dissertation has ranged over many topics and sections, we have investigated the problem, set out some research goals, introduced ourselves to the DIAL House conundrum set some aims and objectives, looked at little at the background hardware and software requirements. Created a communications plan, looked at the current state of play and issues surrounding mobile web site creation and delivery. We have integrated users on their experience of the test server version of the site. Investigated the performance of the site on a number of devices, handed over to the client a completed project disc and briefly explored some future work.

One of the many things that has fascinated me is that by simply by obeying a few clear-cut rules and utilising a few tools we are able to construct a command that makes my mobile phone call DIAL House Chester, and not just my mobile phone: anyone that can find the page, a not insignificant task, can also make a mobile phone call to DIAL House Chester.


 

Bibliography

Aristotle. (n.d.). Rhetoric.

Bell, J. (2005). Doing yourResearch Project (Fourth ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK: University Press.

Caldwell, B., Cooper, M., Guarino , L., & Vanderheiden, G. (2010, 12 15). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Retrieved 12 15, 2010, from w3.org: http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/

Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Roth, R. M. (2006). Systems Analysis and Design (Third ed.). (B. L. Golub, Ed.) Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

DIAL House Chester. (2010, 12 13). Index and History. Retrieved 12 13, 2010, from DIAL House Chester: http://www.dialhousechester.org.uk/

Frost, M. (2000). Learning WML and WMLScript (First ed.). Sebastopol, California, USA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

Gartner Inc. (2010, 05 19). Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 17 Per Cent in First Quarter 2010. Retrieved 12 17, 2010, from http://www.gartner.com/: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1372013

Harold, E. R., & Means, W. S. (2004). XML in a Nutshell. Sebastopol, California, USA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Lessig, L. (2000). Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.

mobiThinking.com. (2011, 04 30). Global mobile statistics 2011: all quality mobile marketing research, mobile Web stats, subscribers, ad revenue, usage, trends…. Retrieved 04 30, 2011, from mobiThinking.com: http://mobithinking.com/stats-corner/global-mobile-statistics-2011-all-quality-mobile-marketing-research-mobile-web-stats-su

Satzinger, J. W., Jackson, R. B., & Burd, S. D. (2009). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World (Fifth ed.). (A. v. Rosenberg, Ed.) Boston, MA, USA: Course Technology.

SearchMobileComputing.com. (2010, 12 17). Mobile and wireless protocols. (SearchMobileComputing.com, Editor) Retrieved 12 17, 2010, from SearchMobileComputing.com: http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/tip/Mobile-and-wireless-protocols#1

Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T. J., & Rosenblatt, H. J. (2010). Systems Analysis and Design (Eighth ed.). (K. McMahon, Ed.) Boston, MA, USA: Course Technology.

Siau, K., & Faulkner, J. E. (2007, May 06). Systems Analysis and Design - Trends and Directions. Interlaken, Switzerland.

Wireless Application Protocol Forum Ltd. (2002). Wireless Application Protoco WAP 2.0 Technical White Paper.

Wugofski, T., & Raggett, D. (2010, 12 15). Towards Convergence of WML, XHTML, and other W3C Technologies. Retrieved 12 15, 2010, from w3.org: http://www.w3.org/2000/09/Papers/Wugofski.html

 

Works Cited

Aristotle. (n.d.). Rhetoric.

Bell, J. (2005). Doing yourResearch Project (Fourth ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK: University Press.

Caldwell, B., Cooper, M., Guarino , L., & Vanderheiden, G. (2010, 12 15). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Retrieved 12 15, 2010, from w3.org: http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/

Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Roth, R. M. (2006). Systems Analysis and Design (Third ed.). (B. L. Golub, Ed.) Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

DIAL House Chester. (2010, 12 13). Index and History. Retrieved 12 13, 2010, from DIAL House Chester: http://www.dialhousechester.org.uk/

Frost, M. (2000). Learning WML and WMLScript (First ed.). Sebastopol, California, USA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

Gartner Inc. (2010, 05 19). Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 17 Per Cent in First Quarter 2010. Retrieved 12 17, 2010, from http://www.gartner.com/: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1372013

Harold, E. R., & Means, W. S. (2004). XML in a Nutshell. Sebastopol, California, USA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Lessig, L. (2000). Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.

mobiThinking.com. (2011, 04 30). Global mobile statistics 2011: all quality mobile marketing research, mobile Web stats, subscribers, ad revenue, usage, trends…. Retrieved 04 30, 2011, from mobiThinking.com: http://mobithinking.com/stats-corner/global-mobile-statistics-2011-all-quality-mobile-marketing-research-mobile-web-stats-su

Satzinger, J. W., Jackson, R. B., & Burd, S. D. (2009). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World (Fifth ed.). (A. v. Rosenberg, Ed.) Boston, MA, USA: Course Technology.

SearchMobileComputing.com. (2010, 12 17). Mobile and wireless protocols. (SearchMobileComputing.com, Editor) Retrieved 12 17, 2010, from SearchMobileComputing.com: http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/tip/Mobile-and-wireless-protocols#1

Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T. J., & Rosenblatt, H. J. (2010). Systems Analysis and Design (Eighth ed.). (K. McMahon, Ed.) Boston, MA, USA: Course Technology.

Siau, K., & Faulkner, J. E. (2007, May 06). Systems Analysis and Design - Trends and Directions. Interlaken, Switzerland.

Wireless Application Protocol Forum Ltd. (2002). Wireless Application Protoco WAP 2.0 Technical White Paper.

Wugofski, T., & Raggett, D. (2010, 12 15). Towards Convergence of WML, XHTML, and other W3C Technologies. Retrieved 12 15, 2010, from w3.org: http://www.w3.org/2000/09/Papers/Wugofski.html


 

Appendix 1

Example of XHTML Mobile Profile

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.1//EN"

  "http://www.openmobilealliance.org/tech/DTD/xhtml-mobile11.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">

  <head>

    <title>DIAL House Chester</title>

  </head>

  <body>

    <p>Welcome to the DIAL House Mobile Website

    <a href="http://dialhousechester.org.uk/mobile/">home page</a>.</p>

  </body>

</html>

Example of XML

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/xhtml-mobile10.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

<head>

<meta name="author" content="DIAL House Chester"/>

</head>

<body>

<img src="DIALHouseLogo.png" alt="DIAL House Chester logo" height="" width="" /><

<h1>Home</h1>

<p>DIAL House Chester: Improving the lives of disabled people.</p>

</body>

</html>

Example of WML

<?xml version="1.0"?>¶<!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml">

<wml>

 <card id="card1" title="Tutorial">

 <do type="accept" label="Answer">

 <go href="#card2"/>

 </do>

 <p>

<select name="name">

 <option value="HTML">XHTML MP Tutorial</option>

 <option value="XML">XML Tutorial</option>

 <option value="WAP">WAP Tutorial</option>

 </select></p>

 </card>

 <card id="card2" title="Answer">

 <p>You selected: $(name)</p>

 </card>

</wml>