Grid Computing

Introduction

If I was a person could I communicate with some else?

So, to develop a little context: Masters Information Systems, ID = 0817804@chester.ac.uk, moduleCode = “CO7114 Cloud Computing” lecture one.

Completed modules:

·         CO7101 Research Methods 1 - Professional Standards and Issues

·         CO7103 Information Systems Management and Strategy

There I was: daydreaming and chatting with Rob, when Mohammed pops up and says “I want you to choose a number from 1 to 10, write it next to your name on this sheet of paper and pass it on. You are not able to choose a number already on the sheet”. So I choose 4 and waited for my opportunity to write it down. When the sheet arrived I write 4 on in, see Figure 1 Numbers 1 to 8 with language link symbols, and then completely forgot all about it.

Figure 1 Numbers 1 to 8 with language link symbols

A short time later, it became apparent that this choice has a value: it was a topic from a predefined list for assignment one. After a moment of panic, I asked to see the sheet: read my number and understood 4. Mohammed then gave the list and I waited eagerly for the description of the topic for 4 – “GRID COMPUTTING” I heard and understood to be my topic for analysis, with this in mind I set of on my voyage of discovery into what this idea might mean.

A few days later I check the portal to download the first lectures’ presentation and discover that the assignment task has been published. The bit that interested me and caused confusion was:

JONES, Andrew                                Presentation 5                  Grid Computing

So now I have been assigned 5 not 4 as originally selected, which meant that I was missing imagination and depth in my understanding of the topic for reporting at my understanding of what 4 meant in value terms in relation to the topic. The interesting part was that the topic remained the same, and the net result is that I need to explain grid computing in a presentation of 30 minutes on the 4th June 2013 and in 1,700 words by 28th June 2013, starting point 19:30 23rd April 2013.

Which is?

1.       Days

2.       Hours

3.       Minuets

4.       Seconds

5.       Processor cycles

RAM as an Area concept, storage as magnetic distortions in field.

This started me thinking: I wonder what the others heard and understood from their selection of a number and its’ attributed topic value.

I know that grid computing was described as:

الحوسبة الشبكية

eget computandi

گرڈ کمپیوٹنگ

распределенные вычисления

cyfrifiadura grid

การคำนวณตาราง

υπολογιστικού πλέγματος

网格

I choose 4 and got 5 which is different to 4 by a factor of 1, as it turns out that because 1 is different from 0 we invented machines to determine what this difference might mean.

I know that computers speak 0 and 1 and we use table references to communicate with them, such as: UTF-8 encoding table and Unicode characters.

This means I have a way to communicate with the computer: “grid commuting” becomes: 0110011101110010011010010110010000100000011000110110111101101101011100000111010101110100011010010110111001100111

So we arrive at: computer: Query:

What is a grid?

From the dictionary:

Pronunciation

./grid/

Definition
Noun

1.       a framework of spaced bars that are parallel to or cross each other; a grating

2.       a network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles

3.       a grid of regular squares on a map that are marked with numbers or letters to enable a place to be precisely located.

4.       Computing: a number of computers linked together via the Internet so that their combined power may be harnessed to work on difficult problems.

Verb

[with object] (usually as adjective gridded) put into or set out as a grid: a core of gridded streets

Origin

mid-19th century: back-formation from gridiron

And, what is computing?

Pronunciation

./kəmˈpjuːtɪŋ/

Definition

Noun

[mass noun]

The use or operation of computers: developments in mathematics and computing [as modifier]: computing facilities.

Result

Question: what is a computer?

From the dictionary

Pronunciation

./kəmˈpjuːtə/

Definition
noun

an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

·         a person who makes calculations, especially with a calculating machine.

 

How have these terms have become associated as an idea, concept and metaphor?

Virtualization and Cloud Computing

Quick synopsis of computing history

See Appendix 2, and we arrive at today.

OSI layer model for Internet

1.       Application

2.       Presentation

3.       Session

4.       Transport

5.       Network

6.       Data link

7.       Physical

Figure 2 OSI Layer 7 Model

So from the abstract of four original layers we see additions grouped with them. 1, 2 and three are grouped under application.

a lesson in maths

a bit of drawing

ideas

imagination

determination

resolution/granularity

some time

aggregation

 

From Lecture 1 presentation

Concept dating back to the 1960’s by John McCarthy, a computer scientist, brought up the idea that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility”

Idea that revolutionized Cloud Computing:

·         Utility computing

·         Grid computing

Many of the activities loosely grouped together under cloud computing have already been happening and centralised computing activity is not a new phenomena

Grid Computing was the last research-led centralised approach

However there are concerns that the mainstream adoption of cloud computing could cause many problems for users

Many new open source systems appearing that you can install and run on your local cluster

 

 

When you try and convert the SETI message to text using a computer you get:

Error: Malformed binary. Your binary code is must be divisible by 8.

Or, when presented another way:

Figure 3 SETI broadcast message as graphic

This sends me back to the misunderstanding of 4 and 5 a difference of 1 which is what computers are all about and our ability to communicate.

Figure 4 SETI WOW signal

Conclusion

Turns out that one of the primary, principle and engaging uses of grid computing is hunting for aliens J

resolve

The knowledge trail

Data becomes information which is used as knowledge. The use and application of knowledge becomes wisdom. It is through wisdom that we choose to communicate ideas. It is from ideas that we get questions. It is with questions that we search for data, and, so the cycle continues until end point.


 

Appendix 1

SETI broadcast message

String =

00000010101010000000000 00101000001010000000100 10001000100010010110010 10101010101010100100100 00000000000000000000000 00000000000011000000000 00000000001101000000000 00000000001101000000000 00000000010101000000000 00000000011111000000000 00000000000000000000000 11000011100011000011000 10000000000000110010000 11010001100011000011010 11111011111011111011111 00000000000000000000000 00010000000000000000010 00000000000000000000000 00001000000000000000001 11111000000000000011111 00000000000000000000000 11000011000011100011000 10000000100000000010000 11010000110001110011010 11111011111011111011111 00000000000000000000000 00010000001100000000010 00000000001100000000000 00001000001100000000001 11111000001100000011111 00000000001100000000000 00100000000100000000100 00010000001100000001000 00001100001100000010000 00000011000100001100000 00000000001100110000000 00000011000100001100000 00001100001100000010000 00010000001000000001000 00100000001100000000100 01000000001100000000100 01000000000100000001000 00100000001000000010000 00010000000000001100000 00001100000000110000000 00100011101011000000000 00100000001000000000000 00100000111110000000000 00100001011101001011011 00000010011100100111111 10111000011100000110111 00000000010100000111011 00100000010100000111111 00100000010100000110000 00100000110110000000000 00000000000000000000000 00111000001000000000000 00111010100010101010101 00111000000000101010100 00000000000000101000000 00000000111110000000000 00000011111111100000000 00001110000000111000000 00011000000000001100000 00110100000000010110000 01100110000000110011000 01000101000001010001000 01000100100010010001000 00000100010100010000000 00000100001000010000000 00000100000000010000000 00000001001010000000000 01111001111101001111000

Reparsed

00000010101010000000000

00101000001010000000100

10001000100010010110010

10101010101010100100100

00000000000000000000000

00000000000011000000000

00000000001101000000000

00000000001101000000000

00000000010101000000000

00000000011111000000000

00000000000000000000000

11000011100011000011000

10000000000000110010000

11010001100011000011010

11111011111011111011111

00000000000000000000000

00010000000000000000010

00000000000000000000000

00001000000000000000001

11111000000000000011111

00000000000000000000000

11000011000011100011000

10000000100000000010000

11010000110001110011010

11111011111011111011111

00000000000000000000000

00010000001100000000010

00000000001100000000000

00001000001100000000001

11111000001100000011111

00000000001100000000000

00100000000100000000100

00010000001100000001000

00001100001100000010000

00000011000100001100000

00000000001100110000000

00000011000100001100000

00001100001100000010000

00010000001000000001000

00100000001100000000100

01000000001100000000100

01000000000100000001000

00100000001000000010000

00010000000000001100000

00001100000000110000000

00100011101011000000000

00100000001000000000000

00100000111110000000000

00100001011101001011011

00000010011100100111111

10111000011100000110111

00000000010100000111011

00100000010100000111111

00100000010100000110000

00100000110110000000000

00000000000000000000000

00111000001000000000000

00111010100010101010101

00111000000000101010100

00000000000000101000000

00000000111110000000000

00000011111111100000000

00001110000000111000000

00011000000000001100000

00110100000000010110000

01100110000000110011000

01000101000001010001000

01000100100010010001000

00000100010100010000000

00000100001000010000000

00000100000000010000000

00000001001010000000000

01111001111101001111000

From which we are to interpret

The message consists of 1679 bits, arranged into 73 lines of 23 characters per line (these are both prime numbers, and may help decode the message).

The message consists of seven parts that encode the following (from the top down):

1.       The numbers one (1) to ten (10)

2.       The atomic numbers of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus, which make up deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

3.       The formulas for the sugars and bases in the nucleotides of DNA

4.       The number of nucleotides in DNA, and a graphic of the double helix structure of DNA

5.       A graphic figure of a human, the dimension (physical height) of an average man, and the human population of Earth

6.       A graphic of the Solar System

7.       A graphic of the Arecibo radio telescope and the dimension (the physical diameter) of the transmitting antenna dish


 

Appendix 2

A history of computing

Computer History
Year/Enter

Computer History
Inventors/Inventions

Computer History
Description of Event

1936

Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer

First freely programmable computer.

1942

John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
ABC Computer

Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC.

1944

Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper
Harvard Mark I Computer

The Harvard Mark 1 computer.

1946

John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
ENIAC 1 Computer

20,000 vacuum tubes later...

1948

Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube

Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the memories.

1947/48

John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & Wiliam Shockley
The Transistor

No, a transistor is not a computer, but this invention greatly affected the history of computers.

1951

John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
UNIVAC Computer

First commercial computer & able to pick presidential winners.

1953

International Business Machines
IBM 701 EDPM Computer

IBM enters into 'The History of Computers'.

1954

John Backus & IBM
FORTRAN Computer Programming Language

The first successful high level programming language.

1955
(In Use 1959)

Stanford Research Institute, Bank of America, and General Electric
ERMA and MICR

The first bank industry computer - also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.

1958

Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
The Integrated Circuit

Otherwise known as 'The Chip'

1962

Steve Russell & MIT
Spacewar Computer Game

The first computer game invented.

1964

Douglas Engelbart
Computer Mouse & Windows

Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end.

1969

ARPAnet

The original Internet.

1970

Intel 1103 Computer Memory

The world's first available dynamic RAM chip.

1971

Faggin, Hoff & Mazor
Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor

The first microprocessor.

1971

Alan Shugart &IBM
The "Floppy" Disk

Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.

1973

Robert Metcalfe & Xerox
The Ethernet Computer Networking

Networking.

1974/75

Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 Computers

The first consumer computers.

1976/77

Apple I, II & TRS-80 & Commodore Pet Computers

More first consumer computers.

1978

Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston
VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software

Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.

1979

Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby
WordStar Software

Word Processors.

1981

IBM
The IBM PC - Home Computer

From an "Acorn" grows a personal computer revolution

1981

Microsoft
MS-DOS Computer Operating System

From "Quick And Dirty" comes the operating system of the century.

1983

Apple Lisa Computer

The first home computer with a GUI, graphical user interface.

1984

Apple Macintosh Computer

The more affordable home computer with a GUI.

1985

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.

The internet

What we mean by asking what is the Internet? There are metrics and questions for describing our understanding of the internet:

“How many websites are on the Internet?

How many bytes of data are contained on the Internet?

How many distinct servers operate on the Internet?

How much traffic runs through the Internet per second?” (Conjecture Corporation, 2013)

The Indexed Web contains at least 14.41 billion pages (Wednesday, 01 May, 2013). (Kunder, 2013)

Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google, the world’s largest index of the Internet, estimated the size at roughly 5 million terabytes of data. That’s over 5 billion gigabytes of data, or 5 trillion megabytes.

It has a people interaction population of over a billion with a permanent persistent population of between 5 and 6 hundred million.

“People estimate there are roughly 75 million servers worldwide” (Conjecture Corporation, 2013)

“According to Russel Seitz: two ounces” (Conjecture Corporation, 2013), he arrived at these using energy equations.

The top things searched for in 2012

1.       Whitney Houston

2.       Gangnam Style

3.       Hurricane Sandy

4.       iPad 3

5.       Diablo 3

6.       Kate Middleton

7.       Olympics 2012

8.       Amanda Todd

9.       Michael Clarke Duncan

10.   BBB12

1.2 trillion Searches, in 146 languages. (Google, 2013)

Natural language considerations

오빤 스타일

 

Peoples principal areas of search interest

·         Searches

·         Images

·         Athletes

·         Events

·         People

·         Feature Films

·         TV Shows

·         Performing Artists

·         Consumer Electronics

·         Airlines

·         Hashtags

·         Videos


 

Appendix 3

Logical connective

Natural language

·         "and" (conjunction)

·         "or" (disjunction)

·         "either...or" (exclusive disjunction)

·         "implies" (implication)

·         "if...then" (implication)

·         "if and only if" (equivalence)

·         "only if" (implication)

·         "just in case" (bi-conditional)

·         "but" (conjunction)

·         "however" (conjunction)

·         "not both" (alternative denial)

·         "neither...nor" (joint denial)

Logical constant

Symbol

Meaning in English

T

"true"

F

"false"

¬

"not"

"and"

"or"

"implies", "if...then"

"for all"

"there exists", "for some"

=

"equals"

"necessarily"

"possibly"

Table 1 logical constant: symbols and meaning in English

List of common logical connectives

·         Negation (not): ¬ , Np, ~

·         Conjunction (and): \wedge , Kpq, & , ∙

·         Disjunction (or): , Apq

·         Material implication (if...then): \rightarrow , Cpq, \Rightarrow , \supset

·         Bi-conditional (if and only if): \leftrightarrow , Epq, \equiv , =

Alternative names for bi-conditional are: "iff", "xnor" and "bi-implication".


 

Appendix 4

Lexicon

·         cluster

·         XML

·         hopes

·         IDE

·         interoperability

·         parallel processing

·         platform

·         server farm

·         service

·         SOAP

·         Slate

·         transience